Introduction, Problems, and Variables


Provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. What is the main reason that we study the object.

Based on

  1. Available Statistics
  2. Observation
  3. Literature review

Inspiration for problems

  1. Deduction from theories
  2. Interdisciplinary perspective
  3. Discussion with practitioner
  4. Personal experience by visual observations
  5. Relevant literature

Good research problems

  1. Useful for general public
  2. Supporting various perspective
  3. Realistic, possible to study (feasible and researchable)
  4. Problems must be suitable with researchers qualifications. 

Types of variables

Causal relationship

  1. independent
  2. dependent
  3. moderating
  4. intervening/mediating

Kualitas pelayanan (I) ---> Kepuasan pelanggan (D)

Kualitas pelayanan (I)---> Kepuasan pelanggan (D)
                   Faktor demografi (M)

Kualitas pelayanan (I) ---> Kepuasan pelanggan (in) ------> loyalitas pelanggan (D)
                   Faktor demografi (M)

Study design

  1. active variables
  2. attribute variables, cannot be changed


  1. Qualitative variables
  2. Quantitative variables

Measurement scale

  1. Nominal
  2. Ordinal
  3. Interval
  4. Ratio



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