Research Method

Research Goal

  1. Problem Solving
  2. Theory making
  3. Answering questions
Research type
  1. Pure research (theory making)
  2. Applied research (problem solving)
  3. Descriptive research (description of a phenomenon)
  4. Correlation research (to find correlation between variables)
  5. Explanatory research (explaining my something happened)
  6. Exploratory research (go deep into phenomenon to find factors)
  7. Quantitative research (quantifying phenomenon)
  8. Qualitative research 
Research Objectives

  1. Proofing available theories, deductive (Bachelor Degree)
  2. Developing available theories, deductive (Master Degree)
  3. Finding new theories (Doctoral Degree)

Research elements

  1. Problem(s)
  2. Theoretical Framework (literature study)
  3. Concept definition
  4. Dimensions and Variables/Indicator
  5. Hypothesis


Concept ---> Dimension -- > variable --> indicator

Concept example

  • Behavior

Dimension examples

  • environment
  • health facility
  • costs
  • inflation

Variable examples

  • parents education


  • Finished education
  • Health facility to population ratio


Democracy --> Civil freedom --> Free speech --> Indicator 1, Indicator 2
Motivation achievement --> Inability to settle --> ... ---> ...

P: Measuring Teacher loyalty
C: Theory regarding loyalty --> D: Stay, say and Strive factor -->  V: in questionnaire --> I: ...

Deduction & Induction Methods in research

Deductive: Process of arriving at conclusion using available theories.
Develop theory --> Formulate hypothesis --> Collect and analyze data --> Accept/reject hypothesis
Good for: quantitative research

Inductive: Data observation to create new theories.
Observe phenomenon --> Analyse patterns and themes --> Formulate relationships --> Develop theory
Good for:
qualitative research maybe?

Research steps

1. Problem
2. Literature review
3. Research design
4. Data collection
5. Data processing
6. Data analysis
7. Report writing
8. Dissemination

Process of Business research

Problem formulation --> Preliminary study --> Hypothesis formulation --> Data collection * --> data analysis --> Conclusions and recommendations (report writing).

* Data collection:
1. Sample and population
2. Research instrument
3. Testing data validation

Research structure metaphor

Starting with general question
.... too fast!

"Good Research" characteristics

  1. Clear objective (purposiveness)
  2. using reliable theories (rigor)
  3. using hypothesis testing (testability), available hypothesis and data should be testable.
  4. Replicable (replicability)
  5. Hi precision, not low... (precision and confidence), 95% of time the results would be true.
  6. Objective (objectivity), using actual data
  7. Generalizablity, can be applied to different sectors.
  8. Parsimony, simplicity in explaining phenomenon, using simpler model is preferred.

Obstacle or limitations

I missed it again... T_T

Order of writing

  1. Title page
  2. Preface
  3. Table of contents
  4. Introduction
  5. Theoretical study, Thinking framework, Hypothesis formulation
  6. Research methodology
  7. Analysis
  8. Conclusion
  9. Bibliography
  10. Appendix

Writing guidelines of research writing

  1. using clear sentences
  2. using terms carefully, uncommon terms should be explained
  3. using direct sentences
  4. using number on each headings, subheadings, table, and diagram consistently
  5. using footnotes consistently


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